NSF GRFP: Funding Broader Impacts

A few weeks ago the new class of National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowships was announced. In response I tweeted a congratulatory:

Screen Shot 2015-04-24 at 9.10.25 AMWhen I posted that I was thinking only of how happy, excited and extremely honored I felt to have earned one the year before.

Then I saw discussions arising on social media that were criticizing the NSF GRFP program and their lack of supporting broader impacts/underrepresented groups, and their lack of funding diverse candidates from non-name recognized schools and/or candidates that will serve a diverse public.

I know I am just one example, but I think it’s important for people to know that people do get funded based on their broader impacts. I am a NSF Graduate Research Fellow, and I am one of those people. I also graduated from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), but my undergraduate institution had very little to do with my NSF GRFP, in fact I spent almost half of my tenure at UCSD at different universities. UCSD (including faculty) had nothing to do with the writing or preparation of my application.

Mine may be a special case, but I think it’s important that people know these cases exist and remind people that the public NSF GRFP results don’t give you a full picture of each applicant, only where they went to school – which should neither credit nor discredit them. I am not saying no biases exist, I am not naïve to the politics behind academia/research, this is just my personal experience.

I initially wrote this post in a more reactive/defensive stance, feeling personally attacked that people were alluding to the fact that NSF GRFPs may not be earned, especially if you went to a name-recognized undergraduate institution, which I did. Then I stepped away for a few weeks and realized, rather than be defensive, I’ll be transparent, so here is my NSF GRFP funding story, the one that the institution names don’t tell:

I worked, volunteered and interned for 3 years after I graduated from UCSD. I spent those years bringing science education to underprivileged minorities, helping to reach over 3,000 children in a historically underprivileged school district. I developed STEM education programs and taught them to children from homeless shelters, autistic children, and Mexican children who didn’t speak English. Whose parents’ didn’t speak English, so I translated material so they could understand too. I helped organize and teach free student and teacher conservation education workshops (complete with bilingual resource bags containing activities, books, games, etc.) in a small town in Mexico.

I kept a job that barely paid the bills so that I could continue this work, which became a passion and the inspiration behind pursuing my PhD. I volunteered 10+ hours a week, on top of working full time, to pursue a research internship and also volunteer with a non-profit that brings free science education to underserved school districts. I pursued graduate school applications and took the GRE while working and volunteering and dealing with a death in the family, commuting 3+hours round-trip several days a week to be there for family.

The job that barely paid the bills I took as a “place holder” while I thought I’d figure out what I wanted to do, as I got it after 4 months of post-graduation unemployment. I didn’t know when I started that it would inspire me and instill in me a passion for outreach, especially to underprivileged groups. As a result, the first lines of my NSF GRFP Personal Statement read:

I want to make a difference. I want to influence policy, encourage sustainable change, inspire stewardship and promote STEM education. Earning my PhD is essential in accomplishing these goals.

and my “life sciences” dissertation work has a critical component that helps employ, engage, educate, and give voice to impoverished people in Central America. As well as plans to bridge graduate students and K-12 STEM students.

I am funded for my broader impacts, those past, present and future. One reviewer actually started their review with something like:

Although reproduction of turtles is not an exciting topic…

and then went on to give me an “Excellent”, emphasizing the strength in my integration of learning, discovery, and communication of my project to diverse audiences, and my specific plans to serve underrepresented groups.

Another reviewer specifically cited my “exceptionally strong” broader impacts plan as a reason for supporting my work.

I was not funded for my research on sea turtles. I was not funded because my B.S. was from UCSD, or because my grades or test scores were perfect (they weren’t). I was funded for my broader impacts, specifically for those that target underprivileged and underrepresented groups.

I realize everyone’s story is different, but please consider that you may not have all the information, that the name of the undergraduate university doesn’t give you the whole story and that NSF does fund GRFPs for broader impacts. I may be just one example, but I know that if not for my strong passion for science communication and education that I would not be funded.

I am proud of my NSF GRFP and thankful that NSF does fund graduate students with goals and passions outside of pure research and I am thankful that broader impacts matter to the reviewers who fought for my application.


About that “inquisitive hawksbill” sea turtle – he was likely just trying to mate and he’s critically endangered

Lately a video shared by Guy Harvey has been making its rounds on social media. It claims that it is an “encounter between an inquisitive hawksbill sea turtle and an unsuspecting commercial diver in the Gulf of Thailand.” That sea turtle is not “inquisitive” or being friendly  – he is very likely trying to mount the diver in a mating attempt.

I hope that as this video continues to circulate that a few important educational facts go with it:

Female on the right, Male on the left.  photo from http://www.scubamaui.com/turtles.htm

Female on the left, Male on the right.
photo via www.scubamaui.com/turtles.htm

1.The sea turtle in this video is a sexually mature male, you can tell by his long tail (which houses his reproductive organs). Female sea turtles have a much smaller tail that just peeks out from the shell. 2. Sea Turtles are all protected species. Hawksbills (the type of turtle in the video) are critically endangered, primarily due to anthropogenic (human generated) threats. 3. While it is good that the diver in the video initially pushed the turtle away and includes some information on threats to sea turtles in his encounter report- petting sea turtles is illegal in many parts of the world and should not be encouraged.

That hawksbill sea turtle is an adult male, as evidenced by his large tail. Adult male turtles of several species are known to try to mount almost anything in hopes of multiple mating and passing their genes on (Bowen 2007).The diver doesn’t seem to think he was being mounted, in his encounter the diver reports that the turtle didn’t show any signs of “coming out of his shell”. I’m not sure what is meant by that, but the reproductive organs of a male sea turtle are in his tail, not in his shell. The behavior seen in the video is very similar to that encounter described in Dr. Brian Bowen’s 2007 article, “Sexual Harassment By A Male Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas)” in the Marine Turtle Newsletter.  Dr. Bowen’s description even mentions that the turtles can be aggressive, which is in tune with the diver from the video’s account that the turtle tried to bite his leg. The behavior of the turtle is also consistent with the mating behavior of male turtles as described in an article by Schofield et al. 2006. Initially pushing the sea turtle away gently was probably a good move by the diver in the video, as males when trying to mate can be aggressive (Schofield et al. 2006Bowen 2007, and references therein). However, the petting of the turtle after is inappropriate and as a sea turtle biologist and general ocean enthusiast it frustrates me that this video is posted and shared with very little educational information. One has to actually click the link embedded in the video’s caption (which I missed on first glance) to get the diver’s story about the encounter and any educational information about sea turtles. The diver does provide information about sea turtles in Thailand and their threats and protected status, which I absolutely applaud him for including in his account. I think it’s important to add that hawksbills are a  critically endangered species, primarily as a result of anthropogenic (human-generated) threats, like use for decorations and consumption (see threats section on the IUCN RedList page).  I can’t tell you how many times I’ve told people that I study sea turtles and have them immediately respond with, “one time when I was snorkeling/diving with sea turtles I pet one/ high-fived one/ grabbed one/rode one/carved my initials in a shell…I know I’m not supposed to but it was so cool to be up close”. Again, these are critically endangered species and in many places in the world petting, riding, high-fiving, and approaching them are illegal. I understand how magical it is to see a sea turtle underwater – it is truly fascinating to watch them fly in slow motion through the surge. However, please be respectful as you observe them, it is generally suggested leaving a 6-10 foot buffer between you and the turtle. This will help ensure both your safety and that of the sea turtle. Plus it will allow you to truly observe the sea turtle’s natural behavior, which is beautiful in and of itself.

icapo hawksbill

An eastern Pacific hawksbill sea turtle.  Photo Credit: ICAPO 

To learn more about sea turtles visit:
NOAA Fisheries Sea Turtles Page  Seaturtle.org’s “Sea Turtle Educator’s Handbook” The Sea Turtle Conservancy Hawksbill specific information:  Eastern Pacific Hawksbill Initiative